Millennium Development Goal 7: Ensure environmental sustainability. The MDGs are eight goals to be achieved by 2015 that respond to the world's main development challenges. The MDGs are drawn from the actions and targets contained in the Millennium Declaration of 2000.
The adoption of the Environment Strategy for the Sustainable Development of Mozambique (EADS-Moç) in 2007, the Action Plan for Climate Change Adaptation and Control and the Fight against Soil Erosion and Forest Fire, as well as the conclusion of the National Forest Inventory, the establishment of an Environment Unit and the drawing up of a Strategy for Environment Management within the Power Sector and the integration of an Environment Component in the activity plans of other government departments, such Agriculture, Public Works and Housing, Health, Tourism, Fishing, Energy and Industry amongst others, are all important interventions for the realisation of integrated goals for sustainable development principles, within programmes and policies, and for the reversal of the loss of natural resources and reductions in biodiversity.
In this context, attention should e drawn to the adoption of the Strategic Plan on Rural Sanitation and Water, the National Strategy for Water Resource Management, the Law and Policy on Water, the National Information Strategy for Water and Sanitation National as well as the drawing up of a Strategic Plan on Urban Sanitation and Water, which is in course.
According to the 2005/2007 National Forest Inventory, the proportion of land covered by forest amounts to 51%. With regard to the consumption of substances responsible for destruction of the ozone layer, existing details show a gradual reduction on Chlorofluorcarbonets (CFs) from 9.9 (2000) to 2.7 (2007), Methil Bromet from 8.4 (2000) to 0.4 (2007) and a trend for the increasing consumption of Hidroclorofluorcarbonetos (HCFs) from 0.5 in 2000 to 2.05 in 2007 (Source: MICOA).
In the context of the expansion of sustainable access to drinking water (with a target of 70% for 2015), 6.090 diverse water points have been constructed and rehabilitated in the rural areas , benefiting nearly 3.045.000 people, 42 small systems for water supply benefiting 102,545 people, and 17.370 diverse water points of which 13.793 are operational and serving 7.585.559 people and corresponding to a coverage rate of 48.5%,15.959 new domestic connections were established in urban areas and 326 water fountains rehabilitated serving 2.198.146 people, representing a 40% rate of coverage of the urban population. Estimates point to coverage rates of 60% by 2009 and 73% in 2010. This tendency is hopeful for the achievement of the target of increasing by half the total number of people with access to clean drinking water.
Regarding access to basic sanitation: in rural area (50% target by 2015) nearly 25.638 improved pit latrines have been built representing a 39% coverage rate; in urban areas (80% target by 2015) rehabilitation of sanitation systems have been taking place through various activities, namely: sewage, septic drainage and running water systems; in the city outskirts 26,429 improved pit latrines were built followed by education programmes in hygiene and institutional capacity building in four Municipalities. The rate of coverage for urban sanitation is now 47.3%.
The adoption of Policies and the Land Use Planning Law (LOT) in 2007 and the subsequent regulations in 2008 as well as the integration of a spacial component in the District Development Plans of 40 Districts expected to be completed by 2009, gives an encouraging outlook for the situation and some optimism with regard to a reduction in number of people living in poor conditions in human settlements.
Challenges include the implementation of the Land Use Planning Law, which started in the first semester of 2008, the implementation of the action plan for controlling forest fires and soil erosion and adaptation to climate changes, the continued prevention of environmental degradation and the strengthening of the institutional boards to deal with environment management in the energy sector amongst others.
As part of the set of reforms, project implementation guideline manuals were drawn up under the Rural Water and Sanitation project (MIPAR) which are important tools in the decentralization process designed for guiding the implementation of actions to ensure access to water and rural sanitation.
The direct contribution to environment management through the state budget has witnessed significant increments for both the Ministry for the Coordination of Environmental Action (MICOA) and the Ministry of Public Works and Housing (MOPH) at different levels, as well as the environmental component of other Government Departments. With reference to Cooperation Partners (in the sector of water based on pragmatic approach), this MDG target has benefited from increasing support from bi-lateral and multilateral partners although it is important to mention that the achievement of the millennium goals in relation to improving the living conditions in human settlements will require additional effort and support.
The decentralisation of the State Budget to provinces and districts has also ensured that the districts take responsibility for sustainable environmental management as well as the construction and maintenance of water points to promote sustainability in the coverage of water and basic sanitation.
The priorities for development aid comprise support for the implementation of EADS-Moç. in all aspects, institutional and financial support for coordination at all levels, and to other agencies involved in implementation of specific cross-cutting programmes such as controlling soil erosion, wild fires, environmental dissemination, licensing and environmental inspection, land use planning as well as the sustainable management and environmental education at all levels.